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Water Resources Projects in Indus Basin                          

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Bhakra Nangal System

Bhakra Beas system is one the most prestigious and showcase project of India. The composite Bhakra-Nangal project consists of the Bhakra dam constructed on Satluj River in the State of Himachal Pradesh and Nangal barrage constructed on the same river downstream of Bhakra Dam in the State of Punjab. A distance of around 13 km separates these two projects.

 

Schematic Diagram of Bhakra Beas System

                                                     

Bhakra Dam

The Bhakra dam (bhakra.nic.in) is a concrete gravity dam with a total height of 225.55 m above the deepest foundation level, completed in 1963. It creates a lake called Gobind Sagar with total storage capacity of 0.9621 M ha-m at an elevation 515.11 m and having a surface spread of 16, 868 hectare (41,680 acre). An ogee type of spillway is provided at the center of the dam with its crest at an elevation 501.4 m. The spillway discharge is controlled by four 15.24 m long radial gates. Facilities for release of water for irrigation and power production consist of sixteen numbers of 2.64 m horse shoe type river outlets and 4.572 m diameter steel penstocks, respectively. The river outlets are arranged in two tiers of eight each in the central spillway section. Generally water for irrigation is provided through discharges meant for power generation. However, when the irrigation demand or when the demand at Nangal pond is more than the power releases the river outlets are operated. The overflow spillway and river outlets together can take care of around 11,327 cumec of water.

  

The flow of Satluj River at Bhakra is supplemented by diversion of Beas water through Beas-Satluj link, which takes off from Pondoh dam across Beas River. The Bhakra power plants are operated in conjunction with Gunguwal and Kotla Power Houses on the Nangal Hydel channel.

 

Nangal Barrage

Nangal Barrage diverts the water of Satluj River into the Nangal Hydel Channel (NHC) for power generation and irrigation. It acts as a balancing reservoir with storage about 19.74 MCM to smoothen the variations in releases from the Bhakra power plants supplying regulated flow to Nangal Hydel Channel. There are two powerhouses on the NHC. The first powerhouse is located at Ganguwal, about 19 km from Nangal and second is situated at Kotla at a distance of 9.6 km downstream of Gunguwal. A head of about 28.4 m is available at each of these power houses.

 

Bhakra Canal Systems

Bhakra canals: The Bhakra Main Link (BML) takes off from the tail end of the Nangal Hydel Channel at Ropar and is aligned towards Tohana in the Hissar District. It is a lined channel of 172 km long with a full supply capacity of 354 cumec. The Narwana, Fatehabad and the Bhakra main branches take off from the Bhakra Main Line and through distributaries, irrigate areas of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

 

Bist Doab Canal: It takes off from the right bank of River Satluj at Ropar just upstream of Ropar Head Works with full supply discharge of 45.3 cumec. This canal serves a gross area of 0.25577 million ha.

 

Beas-Satluj Link

A link between Beas and Satluj rivers could be beneficial in many ways: a) for the production of hydropower at Dehar Power Plant, b) augmenting storage in Bhakra reservoir for generation of power, c) to meet irrigation demands for part of Haryana, which otherwise could not be commanded from the Beas at Pong. Also this additional diversion into the Satluj augments the firm power at Bhakra where two sets of power plants of 1,050 MW installed capacity are in operation. Beas-Satluj Link (BSL) Project diverts about 4,700 MCM of water annually from Beas River into Satluj River.

 

Beas river water is diverted from Pandoh dam into the Satluj River near village Dehar, upstream of Bhakra reservoir through a 38 km long water conductor system. The head due to an elevation difference of more than 335 m is utilized to generate 990 MW power. Water of Beas river at Pandoh dam is carried through a tunnel up to Baggi, through an open hydel channel up to Sundarnagar, and through a tunnel from Sundarnagar to Slapper. In between the hydel channel and Sundarnagar-Slapper tunnel, a Balancing Reservoir (BR) has been constructed at Sundarnagar with limited storage capacity to ensure regulated water supply to meet the fluctuating and peaking load requirement for power generation at Dehar Power House.

 

The Pandoh-Baggi Tunnel (PBT), 7.62 m diameter and 13.1 km length carries 255 cumec water and outfalls into concrete lined hydel channel. Water flows through this 1.8 km long open channel into Sundarnagar Balancing Reservoirs (BR). The Sundarnagar BR has 3.7 MCM live storage capacity and takes care of fluctuating water demand at the Dehar power House. Sundarnagar Slapper tunnel (8.53 m dia, 12.38 km long) terminates into surge shaft. The tunnel carries 404 cumec of water for running six generating units of Dehar Power Plant (DPP) and flows into Satluj River. The DPP located on the right bank of river Satluj produces 990 MW power at its full capacity.

 

Beas, Satluj and other Himalayan rivers are known for their high silt content. The tributaries of river Beas, viz. Tirthan, Parboti and Sarvori meet the Beas upstream of Pandoh dam. Silt laden Beas river water from Pandoh dam flows through tunnel and hydel channel into the BR. The large quantity of silt carried by the Beas settles in the BR at Sundarnagar reducing its holding capacity. Hence, silt disposal from BR is carried out through dredging. Silt dredger with a capacity of 500-800 m3 of solids/hr with 15% to 20% of silt by volume is installed in the BR. The dredged slurry is discharged into the Sukheti khad flowing adjacent to the BR. The Sukheti Khad confluences Beas River near Mandi town after flowing a distance of 21 km through a relatively flat terrain.

 

Silt load in the river system

Out of total catchment of 5,278 sq. km of the Beas, 784 sq. km has been identified as a high silt yielding area, specifically in the sub-watershed of Parvati, Bhunter and Larji. It was anticipated that a total silt load of 407 ha-m would annually reach Pandoh dam and would fill the dead storage of the dam in 27 years. However, silt in Pandoh dam was filled up to the spillway crest in a period of nine years after commissioning of the project. Operational guidelines for post delta stage were prepared by BBMB for bed load passes. According to these guidelines, flushing and dredging operations were started in 1986 to restrict the entry of sediment into PBT. It was also anticipated that on an average 215 ha-m of suspended load would enter the water conductor system of BSL and settle in BR, which has a live storage of 369 ha-m. Out of 162 ha-m of silt entering in the BR, about 80 ha-m of silt settles in it annually.

 

Beas Unit Pandoh Dam: The Beas-Satluj link scheme consists of a 76.2 m high rockfill diversion dam at Pondoh on Beas River in Mandi district (HP). The Pandoh dam was constructed in 1977 at Pandoh, 21 km upstream of Mandi town on Mandi-Kulu road in Himachal Pradesh. The reservoir has a live storage of 18.56 MCM. The conveyance system comprises 13.2 km long, 7.62 m diameter tunnel from Pondoh to Baggi and 11.4 km long hydel channel from Baggi to Sundernagar with a maximum capacity of 212.5 cumec. From the tail of the canal, water is led to the Satluj power plant near Dehar. There are six turbines to generate power, each with an installed capacity of 165 MW.

 

Beas Project-II Pong Dam: Pong is a multipurpose earth & rockfill dam on Beas River, 40 km from Mukerian, Mukerian District, Himachal Pradesh. It is located in the Himalayan foot-hills downstream of Pandoh dam. It has a central impervious core with sand and gravel shell zones on either side. The dam is 132.6 meter high from the deepest foundation level and about 100.6 meter high above the river bed. The catchment area at the dam is 12,560 km2. The height and length of the dam is 133 m and 1,951 m respectively. The reservoir has a gross storage capacity of 8,570 MCM and live storage of 7290 MCM at FRL 426.72 m and the MDDL is at 384 m. At FRL, the water spread area covers about 260 sq. km. Pong power house has 6 units of 60 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 15,338 MCM. It has a firm power of 156 MW. BBMB commissioned the project in 1978-83.

 

When the water level reaches 426.7 m the spillway radial gates would be raised. From irrigation and power generation considerations, the minimum level of permissible water level has been fixed at an elevation of 384 m. Between the FRL at 426.7 m and the dead storage level of 384 m a capacity of 0.729 M ha-m for controlled irrigation and power generation is available. An overflow spillway with six bays of 14.4 m (47.5 ft each has been provided on the left abutment of the dam with the crest at an elevation of 416 m. The discharge over the spillway is controlled by six 14.5 m wide and 12.34 m high radial gates with a discharging facility of 12,375 cumec at the highest flood level of 433.12 m.

 

Hydropower plants in Bhakra system

There are several hydropower plants under Bhakra System in Indus basin.

 

The installed capacity of hydropower plants under Bhakra system

Name of the hydropower plant

Installed Capacity

(MW)

Bhakra (Right Bank)

3x132 + 2x157

710

Bhakra (Left Bank)

5x108

540

Ganguwal

2x24.2 + 1x29.25

77.65

Kotla

2x24.2 + 1x29.25

77.65

Dehar

6x165

990

Pong

6x60

360

 

Total

2,755.30

 

Sharing of Benefits

a) Distribution of water

  • Sutlej water: As per the Bhakra Nangal Agreement of 1959, the share of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan is 57.88%, 32.31% and 9.81% respectively.

  • Ravi Beas water: According to the agreement of 1981 and the distribution approved by BBMB in 1982, the surplus Ravi Beas water (after taking out pre-partition utilization) is distributed among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan in the ratio of 30%, 21% and 49%, respectively. Delhi and Jammu & Kashmir have been given fixed shares of 0.2 MAF and 0.65 MAF as per 1981 agreement. No water has been allocated either from Bhakra Nangal or from Beas Project to HP. The Board has been approving the proposals from HP regarding supply of water for irrigation and drinking water purposes out of the Bhakra Nangal and Beas projects.

 

b) Distribution of Power

  • Bhakra Complex: 15.22% of available energy less the requirement of Common Pool Consumers and transmission losses is distributed to Rajasthan. The remaining 84.78% to Punjab, Haryana, New H.P. and UT of Chandigarh in the proportion 54.5%, 39.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% respectively.

  • Dehar Power Plant: Available power less 15 MW to HP allocated by Government of India, 4% transmission losses and project supply at Sundernagar, Slapper and Pandoh is distributed to Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan in the ratio 48%, 32% and 20%, respectively.

  • Pong Power Plant: Available power less project supplies at Talwara and 4% transmission losses is shared by Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan in the same ratio as the sharing of cost, viz., 24.9%, 16.6% and 58.5%.

 

Operation of Bhakra and Pong Reservoirs

The BBMB is operating the reservoirs at Bhakra and Pong in an integrated manner in the best interest of the Partner States. BBMB has constituted a technical committee for this purpose, comprising Chief Engineers from Irrigation Departments of the partner States, Technical Members from the State Electricity Boards and Chief Engineer (Indus Basin), Chandigarh, Central Water Commission, with Director (Agriculture), Punjab as a Special Invitee, to decide the operation of reservoirs under its control. The committee after taking a stock of reservoir levels, inflows, irrigation & power requirements, decides releases from the reservoirs for the following month on a 10-daily basis at the monthly meetings. The same are reviewed by the BBMB at its quarterly meetings.

 

Indira Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP)

Indira Gandhi Nahar Project is a standing example of how large inter-basin transfers have brought about all round socio-economic growth with overall improvement in the ecology and environment of the region. Under the Indus Water Treaty, the waters of three eastern rivers viz. Satluj, Beas and Ravi were allocated to India. As the land to be benefited in India lies mostly to the east and south of these rivers, the three rivers had to be interlinked and the water conveyed to canal systems for serving vast agricultural tracts in Western India. The main storage on Satluj is at Bhakra while that on Beas is at Pong. Bhakra system provides irrigation to 26.3 lakh ha of new area besides stabilization of existing irrigation on 9 lakh ha. The Beas-Satluj link is 37.25 km long, of which 25.45 km passes through a tunnel under difficult rock formations. The capacity of the tunnel is 254.70 cumec. Another dam on Ravi namely, Ranjit Sagar dam will provide additional water to Beas and also generate a large amount of power. Subsequently, it was decided to provide 9.36 BCM of water to Rajasthan Canal (Indira Gandhi Nahar) for irrigating the areas of Thar Desert.

 

Transfer of surplus waters of Ravi, Beas and Satluj to Rajasthan right up to Jaisalmer and Barmer through Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana has eliminated drought conditions, provided power benefits and transformed desert waste land into an agriculturally productive area by bringing irrigation and vegetation to about 2 M-ha area. Contribution in agricultural production due to implementation of the project is worth Rs. 1,750 crore annually. Canal water is also being used to meet domestic needs. The project has dramatically changed the living standard and socio-economic conditions of the people in the region.

 

The post independence era of the country has witnessed rapid strides in creation of irrigation potential, resulting in substantial increase of agricultural production. The IGNP (formerly known as The Rajasthan Canal Project) with a command area of 15.43 lakh hectare is the largest irrigation and drinking water project to cater five districts in north-western Rajasthan. The main canal gets water from the Satluj River in Punjab through a feeder canal which takes off from Harike Barrage, constructed at a point down stream of its influence of Beas and Satluj Rivers.

 

The entire project comprises of the main Indira Gandhi Canal, nine branches, three lifts, and 21 district distributaries with a length of 7,150 km. The project has been divided in two stages. Under the first phase, Rajasthan feeder, the main canal up to 195 km, the Suratgarh low level, and Namshera branches were completed. Under the second stage the construction of remaining portion of the main canal from Chhatargarh to Mohangarh has been completed. The irrigation potential from the IGNP project is assessed as 13.87 lakh ha.

 

The IGNP is a gigantic canal project to carry 524 cumec water from the Harike Barrage in a 204 km long feeder canal in Punjab, to the vast Great Indian Desert, known as the Thar Desert, in Western Rajasthan. The canal network is spread in an area of about 60 km wide and 1,000 km long belt. It consists of 204 km of feeder, 450 km main canal, 8000 km of distribution networks and several thousand km of lined water courses, to spread over a gross command area of 2.5 Mha and provide irrigation to a culturable command of 1.55 Mha.

 

The salient features of the IGNP are:

  • It will provide additional irrigation in 964,000 hectares,

  • Will deliver drinking water for 14 million humans, besides a large cattle population,

  • Will help afforesation in an area of 362,000 hectares,

  • Would provide fodder for 5.2 million units of cows or equivalent animals,

  • Is expected to provide direct employment to 500,000 persons on regular basis, and

  • Will enables exploitation of mineral resources and industrialization.

 

The project was conceived by the great Indian civil engineer, Kanwar Sain, around the year 1940 and construction was started in the year 1958. Since then, the project has gone under considerable modifications and revisions. It is still (year 2006) under construction near tail areas. Planning, design and construction of canal system is managed by a high powered Canal Board with many advisory and technical committees.

 

The main canal is a contour canal with distribution network and irrigation on the right side only. Few lift schemes are provided on the left side. Although the main canal was initially conceived as unlined, design was subsequently modified and it was constructed as a lined canal as it passes through sandy desert soils. High cuttings of about 20 m above bed level as well as heavy bed filling of more than 4 m are encountered in the course of the canal.

 

No construction materials except the desert sand are available along the canal or even within 100 km. There are no rivers or stone hillocks nearby. However, there are some stone hillocks near Ratangarh at a distance of 200 to 300 km from main canal and in tail areas after 450 km of canal (near Mahangarh) at a distance of about 50 km from the tail. Even the coarse sand (locally known as Bajri) required for cement mortar is available at a distance of 200 to 300 km away from canal in deep quarries of Shivbari (Bikaner) and Bap (Phalodi). However, clay soil for manufacture of tiles/bricks is available in small pockets in depression in between sand dunes, at distances varying from 5 to 100 km.

 

The geology of the area is completely concealed under the thick blanket of dunal sand and alluvium; no rock exposures are seen on the surface. The lithology of deep bore holes, dug cum bore hole and piezometers in the area reveal that stratigraphical unit in the area ranges in age from alluvium of quaternary group consolidated sedimentaries of paleozoic group.

 

In the head reaches, the depth of the canal is limited to 6.5 m for stability of sandy soils, operational problems and easiness in construction. It gradually decreases in tail. Internal side slopes of 1:2 (V:H) were considered safe for sandy soils and provided for depth from 6.5 m to 5 m, throughout the entire 450 km length of the main canal. Bed slope has also been restricted to 1 in 12,000, because of long length of canal and to have sufficient command. Even with this flat slope, the drop in water level is 54 m from head to tail. It is uniform from head to tail in 450 km length. Thus velocities are also very much limited in the entire length from 1.5 m/s to 1.2 m/s. Bed width varies practically from 11 times the depth at head to 2 times the depth at tail. Single tile lining in bed and double tile lining on sides has been adopted. Burnt clay tile lining is provided up to 365 km and thereafter P.C.C. block lining is adopted till the end.

 

Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Project

The 1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Hydropower Project (NJHP) is a prestigious project commissioned by Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVN). SJVN (Formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Limited) was incorporated in 1988 as a joint venture of the Govt. of India and the Govt. of Himachal Pradesh. Work on NJHP began in 1993. The project includes a 60.5 m high dam and underground desilting complex. While the dam is located at Nathpa village in Kinnaur District, the power house is located on the left bank of Satluj River at Jhakri in Shimla District. NJHP has many unique features. It has one of the largest underground desilting complexes of the world, one of the deepest surge shafts of the world, and an underground power house with large a cavern of 222m X 20m X 49m, housing 6 Francis turbines of 250 MW each. NJHP will generate 6700 Million Units of electrical energy in a 90% dependable year. The first unit of the project was commissioned in October 2003. SJVN is also associated with many other projects besides NJHP. Details about Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited are available at sjvn.nic.in.

 

Flash floods in August 2000 led to extensive loss of time and money to the project, and caused severe destruction to the dam and power house.

 

Other Projects

Anandpur Sahib

Anandpur Sahib hydropower project is located on Anandpur Sahib Canal that takes off from Nangal barrage on Satluj River, 8 km from Anandpur Sahib in Ropar District, Punjab. Two hydropower houses namely Anandpur Sahib I and Anandpur Sahib II have been constructed under this scheme. Both the powerhouses have 2 units of 33.5 MW each with a total installed capacity of 134 MW. It has a firm power of 105 MW. Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) commissioned the project in 1985.

 

Baira Siul Project

Baira hydropower project is an earth core and rockfill dam on Baira River supplemented by Bhaledh and Siul Rivers, tributaries of Ravi River in Indus basin. The dam is located in Chamba District, Himachal Pradesh near Pathankot. The catchment area at the dam is 1,038 sq. km out of which 660 sq. km lies in Baira river basin and the rest lies in Bhaledh River basin. The height and the length of the dam are 53 m and 160 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 1,270 MCM at FRL 1,122.15 m and the MDDL of the reservoir is at 1,113 m. Baira surface power house has 3 units of 60 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 1,060 MCM. It has a firm power of 39 MW and the annual generation is 750 million units in 90% dependable year. NHPC commissioned the project in 1981 at a cost of Rs. 142.5 crore.

 

Baspa II

Baspa II hydropower project has been constructed on a gated barrage on Baspa River, a tributary of Satluj River in Indus basin. The project is located 210 km from Shimla in Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh. The catchment area at the dam is 969 sq. km. The barrage has a live storage capacity of 75 ha-m at FRL 2,531.50 m and the minimum pond level is at 2,527.50 m. The power house has 3 units of 100 MW each, with annual inflow of 99,175 ha-m and 146,737 ha-m on 90% and 50% dependable year respectively. The project was commissioned in 2003.

 

Bassi Project

Bassi power project is located in Jogindernagar district in Himachal Pradesh. The project utilizes tail waters of Shanan reservoir located in the upstream of Bassi on Uhi River, tributary of Beas River. Bassi power house has 4 units of 15 MW each. It has a firm power of 16 MW. HPSEB commissioned the project in 1970-81.

 

Chamera I

Chamera I is a major project consisting of a concrete arch gravity dam on Ravi River, 25 km from Dalhousie and 80 km from Pathankot in Chamba District, Himachal Pradesh. The catchment area at the dam is 472.5 sq. km. The height and the length of the dam are 140 m and 295 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 110 MCM and mean annual inflow of 1,273 BCM. Its FRL and MDDL are 760 m and 747 m. Chamera I underground power house has 3 units of 180 MW each. It has a firm power of 160 MW and in a 90% dependable year, the annual generation is 1,664 million units. NHPC commissioned the project in 1994 at a cost of Rs. 2,114 crore.

 

Chamera power station II

It is located near Pathankot, in Distt. Chamba, Himachal Pradesh. It has a 39 m high, 118.50 m long concrete gravity dam and an underground power house containing 3 units of 100 MW each. In a 90% dependable year, the annual generation is 1,500 MU. This project was completed by NHPC in 2004 at an estimated cost of Rs.1,930 crore.

 

Lower Jhelum

Lower Jhelum dam has been constructed on Jhelum River near Warikhah in Baramulla District, Jammu & Kashmir. Lower Jhelum power house has 3 units of 35 MW each. It has a firm power of 62 MW. J&KPDC commissioned the project in 1978-79.

 

Malana

Malana is a concrete gravity dam completed in 2001 on Malana River, a tributary of Parbati River of Beas basin. The dam is located 20 km from Bhuntar in Kulu District, Himachal Pradesh. The catchment area at the dam is 4,725 sq. km. The height and the length of the dam are 18 m and 305 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 0.249 MCM at FRL 1,893 m; the MDDL has been fixed at 1879 m. Malana power house has 2 units of 43 MW each, producing a firm power of 12 MW. It has a mean annual inflow of 403 MCM.

 

Mukerian

Mukerian is a hydropower project, located on Shah Nahar Canal diverted from Beas River, in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab. A barrage namely Shah Nahar barrage has been constructed 5 km down stream of Pong dam in Hoshiarpur District, Punjab. Four hydropower projects namely Mukerian I, Mukerian II, Mukerian III, and Mukerian IV have been constructed under this scheme. The Shah Nahar barrage has a pond level of 330.7 m. The length of the barrage is 562 m. The barrage has been constructed for a design flood of 11,073 m3/s. Two powerhouses have 3 units of 15 MW and other two powerhouses have 3 units of 19.5 MW each. Thus the Mukerian power house has a firm power of 137 MW. Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) commissioned the project in 1983-89.

 

Sanjay Bhaba

Sanjay Bhabha hydropower project consists of a gated weir, namely Bhabha weir, located on Bhabha Khad, tributary of Satluj River, 190 km from Shimla in Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh. The catchment area at the weir is 280 sq. km. The pond has a storage capacity of 0.304 MCM at maximum water level 2425.20 m. The power house has 3 units of 40 MW each, with mean annual inflow of 480 MCM. It has a firm power of 33 MW. HPSEB commissioned the project in 1989.

 

Salal Project

Salal I is a 113 m high, 450 m long rockfill concrete dam on Chenab River, 90 km from Jammu in Udhampur District, Jammu & Kashmir. The catchment area at the dam is 21,500 sq. km. The height and the length of the dam are 113m and 630 m respectively. The FRL of the dam is at 487.68 m. Salal sub-surface power house has 3 units of 115 MW each. With mean annual inflow of 21,000 MCM, its annual generation is 2,038 MU. It has a firm power of 227 MW. NTPC commissioned the project in 1987. At 1987 price level, the project cost was Rs. 6,212.1 million.

 

Salal Power Station II

It has a capacity of 345 MW (3 x 115 MW) and annual generation of 1,063 million units. Its 1st unit was commissioned in 1993, 2nd unit in 1994, and the 3rd unit in 1995.

 

Shanan Project

Shanan dam has been constructed on Uhi River and its tributary Lambadug River, tributaries of Beas River in Indus basin. It is located 4 km from Jogindernagar in Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh. The catchment area at the dam is 381 sq. km. Shanan power house has 4 units of 15 MW each including one extra unit of 50 MW.

 

Thein Dam (Ranjit Sagar)

Ranjit Sagar Hydropower house is located at Thein earth and rockfill dam on Ravi River, 24 km from Madhopur barrage, in Gurdaspur District, Punjab. The reservoir behind the Thein dam is known as Ranjit Sagar reservoir. The catchment area at the dam is 6,086 km2. The height and length of the dam is 160 m and 617 m respectively. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 2,344 MCM. The power house has 4 units of 150 MW each. It has a firm power of 129 MW. Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) commissioned the project in 2000.

 

UBDC Project

Upper Bari Doab Canal (UBDC) is a hydropower project, located on Madhopur barrage, on Upper Bari Doab Canal diverted from Ravi River, 12 km from Pathankot in Gurdaspur District, Punjab. The hydropower complex is a mixture of three power projects, namely UBDC I, UBDC II, and UBDC III. The Madhopur barrage is 774 m long and has a normal pond level of 348.5 m. The catchment area at the project is 6,086 km2. The barrage has been constructed for a design flood of 17,750 m3/s. All the three powerhouses have 1 unit of 15 MW and 1 unit of 15.45 MW each with a total installed capacity of 91.35 MW. It has a firm power of 55 MW with mean annual inflow of 8,609 MCM. Punjab State Electricity Board (PSEB) commissioned the project in 1971-91.

 

Upper Sindh II

Upper Sindh II dam has been constructed on Sindh Nallah and Wangath Nallah tributaries of Jhelum River. It is located 40 km from Srinagar in Srinagar Kangan District, Jammu & Kashmir. The catchment area at the dam is 927 sq. km out of which 697 sq. km lies in Sindh basin and the rest 230 sq. km in Wangath basin. The tail waters of Upper Sindh I are diverted into Upper Sindh II for power generation in the project. Upper Sindh II power house has 3 units of 35 MW each. JKPDC commissioned the project in 2000-02.

 

Uri Project

Uri is a 20m high 93.5 m long barrage, located on Jhelum River, 8 km from Baramulla in Kashmir North District, Jammu & Kashmir. The catchment area at the dam is 12,570 sq. km. The reservoir has a live storage capacity of 0.36 MCM and mean annual inflow of 8,400 MCM. The FRL of the reservoir is 1,491 m. Uri underground power house has 4 units of 120 MW each, It has a firm power of 213 MW and annual generation of 2,663 million units in a 90% dependable year. NTPC commissioned the project in 1997 at a cost of Rs. 3,300 crore.

 

Small Hydro Projects

Licences have been given to set up 4 x 5 MW small hydroelectric power projects in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh. The projects are: 5 MW Baner III, 5 MW IKU II, 5 MW Drinidhar, and 5 MW Upper Khaul. Another private company has won the bid for the 70 MW Budhil Project in Chamba district. The power plant will have two units of 35 MW each and will generate 313.33 million units of power per annum.

 

PROJECTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION

In addition to the above several other projects under construction or consideration.

 

Baglihar Hydro-Electric Project

The hydropower potential from the four major river basins in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, namely, Chenab, Jhelum, Indus, and Ravi has been estimated to be in the range of 11,000 MW. The Chenab basin by itself has the largest potential, with an estimated capacity of 8,000 MW (at 60% load factor). Eight hydropower projects with a total capacity of 5,320 MW have already been identified along its track in Jammu and Kashmir State. However, only about 10% of this huge renewable source of energy on Chenab has been exploited up to now. Baglihar is one of such projects with ultimate installed capacity of 900 MW to be developed in two stages of 450 MW each. It is located across Chenab River in Doda District. Pakistan has raised objections against this project under the Indus Water Treaty.

 

Bursar Project

Investigations are in progress for the 1020 MW (4 x 255 MW) project consisting of a 252m high rockfill dam and an underground power house near Hanzal Village (near Kishtwar) in Doda District of Jammu & Kashmir. Annual generation is expected to be 2,018 MU (in a 90% dependable year) at an estimated cost of Rs.4,378 crore.

 

Chamera Stage - III Project

It is being constructed in Chamba Distt. in Himachal Pradesh. A 68 m high concrete gravity dam on Ravi River is being constructed along with an underground power house consisting of 3 units of 77 MW each (total 231 MW). Completion is scheduled by August 2010 at estimated cost of Rs.1,406 crore.

Chutak Project (Proposed)

This project is located near Minji Village in Kargil District of Jammu & Kashmir. A 47.5 m long diversion barrage with an underground power house having 4 units of 11 MW each are proposed.

 

Dulhasti Project

It involves a 65 m high, 186 m long concrete gravity dam, being constructed in Doda District in J & K. An underground power house containing 3 units of 130 MW each (=390 MW) will generation 1,928 MU annually at an estimated cost of Rs. 3,560 crore when it is complete (expected date is end of 2006).

 

Kishanganga Project

This is a proposed run-of-the-river hydropower project on Jhelum River. It will be located near Kralpore Village (near Bandipore) in Baramulla District of Jammu & Kashmir. Its underground power house will have an installed power production capacity of 330 MW yielding an annual generation of 1,350 MU in a 90% dependable year. Like the Baglihar Project, construction of this project has also been opposed by Pakistan claiming that the diversion tunnel of this project will cause reduction in flow of Neelam River which will be detrimental to Pakistans interests.

Kol Dam

This project is being constructed by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) across Satluj River, 4 km upstream of Dehar Power Plant in Bilaspur District. Kol Dam will be a 163m high rock and gravel fill dam with clay core. Its crest level will be at 648 m. Kol reservoir will have MDDL at 636 m, FRL at 642 m, and MWL at 646 m. Four units, each of 200 MW capacity will yield total installed capacity of 800 MW. The estimated annual generation in a 90 % dependable year will be 3054 GWHr and the estimated cost of the project is Rs. 6,300 crore. Work on the project began in the year 2000.

 

Nimoo Bazgo Project

It is proposed near Alchi village in Leh District of Jammu & Kashmir. A 57 m high 247.9 m long concrete gravity dam is proposed to be constructed with a surface power house. The project will have installed capacity of 45 MW (3 X 15 MW) yielding an annual generation of 239.33 MU in a 90% dependable year.

 

Pakal Dul Project

It is located near Village Pakal (near Kishtwar) in Doda District of Jammu & Kashmir. It will have a 167 m high concrete face rockfill dam and an underground power house with capacity of 1,000 MW (4X 250 MW), giving an annual generation of 3,387 MU (in a 90% dependable year). The project is likely to cost Rs. 5,577 crore. The DPR for the project has been completed.

 

Parbati Stage II Project

It is being constructed near Kiratpur in Distt. Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. The project will have a 85 m high concrete gravity dam and a surface power house containing 4 Pelton Turbine Generating units of 200 MW each. These turbines will generate 3,108.66 MU of energy annually (90% dependable year). The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 3,920 crore and it is likely to be commissioned by September 2009.

 

Parbati Stage III Project

This project being constructed on Sainj River in Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh consists of a 43 m high rockfill dam with a 34.5 m orifice type spillway. The underground powerhouse will have 4 units of 130 MW each. It will produce 1977 million units of power in a 90% dependable year. The latest estimated cost of the project is Rs. 2,305 crore. Work has commenced and is expected to be completed by November, 2010.

 

Sewa Project

The Sewa project is being constructed on Sewa River, a tributary of Ravi River, in Basholi tehsil of Kathua River in Jammu and Kashmir. Here, a hydropower project, known as Sewa stage-II is under construction. The project envisages 53 m high concrete gravity dam, a tunnel and three units of 40 MW each in the under-ground powerhouse. The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 665.46 crores. The project is likely to be completed by August 2007 (The Times of India newspaper, August 11, 2004). The installed capacity of power plant will be 120 MW and it will generate 533.52 MU of energy annually.

 

Sewa Stage II Project

Is located near Pathankot on Sewa River (a tributary of Ravi) in Kathua District, J&K State. The project consists of a 53 m high concrete gravity dam. Is power house will be equipped with 3 x 40 MW vertical Pelton turbine units with rated net head of 560 m. Annual generation is expected to be 534 MU (90% dependable year). The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 665 crore and it is likely to be completed by the end of 2007.

 

Uri Stage - II Project

This project is located in Uri Tehsil of Baramulla district in Jammu & Kashmir. The project consists of a concrete gravity dam, 52 m high, 173.2 m long with spillway consisting of 4 bays of 9.0 m each. An underground power house of 132 m length, 15 m width, and 41 m height is being constructed to accommodate 4 units of 60 MW capacity each. Annual energy generation from the plant to the tune of 1,124 MU (90% dependable year) is expected. This project is scheduled for completion by Nov. 2009 at an estimated cost of Rs.1,725 crore.