the large size of the
Mahanadi basin and plenty of
available water, it is natural that a number of projects have been constructed
for utilization of these resources.
Hirakud is one of the earliest and prestigious major multi-purpose river
valley projects in
India after independence.
Commissioned in 1957, the reservoir is situated a little downstream of the
Mahanadi with its tributary Ib, 15 km upstream of Sambalpur town. Situated within the geographical ordinates
of 21° 30' and 21° 50' N, and 83° 30' and 84° 05' E, the reservoir has a water
spread area of 719.63 km2 at FRL. The 1,248 m long masonry dam is 61
m high and this, along with the earthen dams, has a combined length of 25.8 km.
At the dam site, the maximum annual runoff was 91,900 Mm3 while the
minimum annual runoff was 12,400 Mm3. The total catchment
area up to the dam is 83,400 km2. With gross storage capacity of
5,818 Mm3, this is one of the biggest reservoirs. The spillway capacity at FRL is 41,428 cumec.
average annual rainfall in the region is 152 cm. More than 65% of the vast catchment
area stretching over the central Indian plateau is fertile land area.
Salient features of Hirakud reservoir
spread area at FRL
of the masonry dam
of crest gates
level of spillway dam
project has been designed to serve three purposes, namely flood control,
irrigation and power. In addition it was planned to supplement supplies to the
old irrigation system in the Mahanadi delta. Now, the reservoir serves the irrigation
needs of 2,640.38 km2 of land. The water released through power
house irrigates further 4,360 km2 of CCA in Mahanadi delta. A hydropower plant at the dam has 307.5 MW of installed
capacity. Besides, the reservoir produces a fish crop of 350 ton every year.
The reservoir space is also used to provide flood protection to 9,500 km2 of
delta area in district of Cuttack and Puri.
Sagar project (RSP) dam was constructed in 1978 on
River, at 20° 38' N, 81° 34'
E. RSP is about 92 km south of the city of
Raipur. It is a multi-purpose reservoir
which serves irrigation, hydro-electric power-generation and the industrial
requirements of the Bhilai Steel Plant. At the FRL of
348.7 m, the reservoir surface area is 95.40 km2. The total catchment area is estimated at 3,620 km2, of
which 625 km2 is intercepted by the upstream dam, Dudhawa and 486 km2 by Murumsilli
reservoir. At full level, the reservoir storage capacity is 909 Mm3.
The maximum depth of the reservoir is about 32 m.
The off-taking channels carry water in
the order of 11,000 to 30,000 cumec in the peak
season. However, the outlets are rarely completely closed. Water level fluctuates
by 3 to 5 m in a year. The sediments of Ravishankar Sagar are poor in nutrients and organic matter.
Dudhawa reservoir is situated at 81° 45' 21" E
longitude and 20° 18' 1" N
latitude across Mahanadi River near Dudhawa village about 21 km west of Sihawa
near the origin of Mahanadi river and 29 km east of Kanker. The reservoir is in Dhamtari
district of Chhattisgarh state. The construction of
the project started in 1953-54 and it was commissioned in 1963-64. This
reservoir is designed to supply water to Ravishankar Sagar Project complex thereby increasing its irrigation
potential. Water will also be provided to additional culturable
areas under the command of the existing Mahanadi Tandula canal system. The maximum height of this earthen
dam is 24.53 m and length is 2,906.43 m. Two subsidiary bunds of the dam have
heights of 6.61 m and 2.83 m and lengths 568.42 and 426.70 m, respectively. The
catchment area of the reservoir is 625.27 km2
and gross command area is 566.80 km2. At the Full Reservoir Level
(FRL), the submergence area of the reservoir is 44.80 km2.
Sondur reservoir is constructed at 82° 6' E longitude
and 20° 14' N latitude across Sondur
River a tributary of Mahanadi. Located near Gram Machka, Nagri block, Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh
state, the dam was constructed in the year 1988. The catchment
River up to the dam site is 518
km2. Major portion of the catchment lies
in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh
and Koraput district of Orissa
state. Sondur project comprises of a 3.33 km long
composite dam. This consists of a 191.25 m long masonry dam at the center which
includes overflow and non overflow portions; the rest is earthen dam at both
the flanks. The spillway has 5 radial gates of size 15m
´ 10m each. Irrigation sluice is provided at
the left flank.
The project is also
designed to supply water to RSP complex through Dudhawa
reservoir thereby augmenting the irrigation potential of RSP complex for
irrigation. It would also provide irrigation to about 122.60 km2 of Kharif and Rabi crops in Sihawa Nagri block. The designed rate of sedimentation in gross
storage is 0.357 mm /year.
Anicuts built on Mahanadi and Baitarani
Systems are functional as part of Orissa Canal
system, which currently irrigates 3,500 km2 in Mahanadi
and Baitarani basins mostly and also in Brahmani basin by exporting water from Mahanadi. Two of the canals of “Orissa
Canal System” starting from Birupa weir (on
River, a branch of
River) namely Kendrapara
and Pattamundai canals start from the right of the
river and proceed to irrigate to the right of Birupa.
Canal, Range I originating from
the Left of the weir crosses Birupa-Brahmani
watershed to enter the Brahmani basin.
tributaries, namely Ong and Tel, join Mahanadi downstream of Hirakud dam. Both these carry large volumes of flow during
monsoons. The average monsoon runoff at Tikarpara
site is 65,636.00 MCM. In absence of any large
storage dam lot of flow of
Mahanadi goes to the sea and a small
portion is utilized in
Mahanadi delta. There is an
imperative need for construction of a large terminal storage to conserve the
precious resource and utilize it to meet the reasonable needs of the basin and
transfer the surplus to water short areas. A dam site at Manibhadra
dam has been identified and investigated but no progress seems to have been
made. Opposition to the proposed dam is on account of large population
displacement and other reasons. Live storage capacity of the proposed dam is
6,000 Mm3. Studies have shown that Mahanadi has surplus water (Govt. of
Orissa has not agreed with this conclusion) that is
proposed to be transferred from Manibhadra reservoir
to the Dowlaiswaram barrage on the Godavari. In fact, the proposed Manibhadra dam is the starting point of the peninsular
component of NWDA’s ILR proposal.
Minimata Hasdeo Bango is a
multipurpose storage reservoir on Hasdeo
River, tributary of
River, 70 km from Korba, in Korba District, Chhatisgarh. The catchment area
at the dam is 6,730 km2. The masonry gravity dam is 87 m high. The
FRL and the MDDL of the reservoir are 359.66 m and 329.79 m and it has a live
storage capacity of 3,040 MCM. Mean annual inflow to the reservoir is 3,540
MCM. The power house has 3 units of 40 MW each and a firm power of 20 MW.
This is an important project of Chattisgarh
state. The dam is located in Balod tehsil of Durg district at about
5 km from the Balod city. A dam was completed on the
confluence of Sukha Nala
1921, with a catchment area of 827.2 sq. km. The
gross, live, and dead storage capacities of the reservoir are 312.25 MCM,
302.28 MCM and 99.67 MCM
For the reservoir, the highest flood level, the FRL, and MDDL are
333.415 m, 332.19 m, and 320.445 m. A canal takes of from the dam to provide
irrigation to 68,219 ha of Kharif crop. Main canal
and distributaries run for about 110 km and the length of minors is 880 km. The
monsoon rainfall in the command is about 1,293 mm.
In the 1950s, it was realized that the Tandula reservoir is unable to meet the demands of the
command and hence a reservoir, named Gondali
reservoir, was created on Jujhara Nala
in 1957 and a supplementary canal of 9 km length was constructed to supply
water from Gondali reservoir to Tandula
reservoir. After construction of Bhilai Steel Plant
in 1956, water is being supplied to this plant from the Gondali
reservoir and supply for irrigation has been stopped.